答客問

Installation

Question: How can I find out what version of Koha I am using?

Answer: The easiest way to find out your Koha version is taking a look at the About page of the staff interface.

You can also find out from the OPAC by taking a look at the HTML source. It will look something like:

<meta name="generator" content="Koha 18.1200000" /> <!-- leave this for stats -->

Question: Should I use the Debian packages or the tarball to install Koha?

Answer: For the beginning user, it is highly recommended to use the package install of Koha - it provides many simple commands to do powerful things to your Koha installation. Packages should almost always be your choice of install on an ordinary production Koha install. A relative minimum of system administration skill is required to install Koha using the Debian packages.

Instructions for using the packages with Debian.

Installing from tarball or git is the only option for people not installing on Debian or Ubuntu.

Developers should give the KohaDevBox a look, it’s the easiest, quickest way to get a Developer instance of Koha going.

OPAC and staff interface

Question: What cookies does Koha use?

Answer: The cookies Koha uses on the OPAC and in the staff interface are documented in the Koha Community wiki:

https://wiki.koha-community.org/wiki/Use_of_Cookies

Cookies

Custom item type/authorized value icons

問: 可以客製化自己的館藏類型 (或容許值) 圖示嗎?

Answer: Absolutely. To add additional icons to your system you simply add a new directory to koha-tmpl/intranet-tmpl/prog/img/itemtypeimg/ and to koha-tmpl/opac-tmpl/bootstrap/itemtypeimg and put your icons in the new directory. Your icons will show up in a new tab as soon as they are in the folders.

  • 說明

    記兩個地方都要放圖示 (OPAC 與館員介面)。

Customizing Koha images

:可以客製化 OPAC 內的圖片嗎?

:一定可以的。Koha 預設若干圖片供您選用。置於 misc/interface_customization/ 資料夾內。

OPAC display fields

:可以在 Koha 的 OPAC 顯示不同的 MARC 欄位嗎?

:必須設定 XSLT 偏好才能顯示以下的欄位

The OPAC results page shows:

  • 245

  • 100, 110, 111

  • 700, 710, 711

  • 250

  • 260

  • 246

  • 856

The OPAC details page shows:

  • 245

  • 100, 110, 111

  • 700, 710, 711

  • 440, 490

  • 260

  • 250

  • 300

  • 020

  • 022

  • 246

  • 130, 240

  • 6xx

  • 856

  • 505

  • 773

  • 520

  • 866

  • 775

  • 780

  • 785

  • plus all of the 5xx fields in the 『Notes』 tab at the bottom

顯示借出館藏的條碼給讀者看

:讀者可以看自己借出館藏的條碼嗎。

:預設是不行,但修改讀者紀錄的幾個地方後就能讓條碼欄位顯示在 OPAC 內讀者借出摘要欄內。設定 讀者屬性 中 SHOW_BCODE 的值與 容許值 中 YES_NO 的值就可以。

image1112

然後在 讀者紀錄設定值 裡把 SHOW_BCODE 設為 yes。

image1113

將在 OPAC 新增借出摘要欄,顯示借出館藏的條碼。

image1114

按 『逾期』 分頁將祗顯示逾期的館藏。

流通/通知

Fees and fines

Question: Why am I getting fined 5.00 for every loan?

Answer: The money you are seeing on your patron’s account isn’t a fine, but a rental fee. The optional default item types that come with the Koha sample data might contain a rental fee. To remove this fee, do the following:

  • Click More > Administration

  • Click Item types

  • Note which item types have a 5.00 fee associated with them, select them for editing

  • Remove the fee, and save the item type

Book drop

Question: How is the book drop date determined? Is it the last open date for the checkout library? Is it today’s date minus one? Can the book drop checkin date be set?

Answer: If the library is closed for four days for renovations, for example, there would be more than one day needed for the book drop date. You will only have one book drop date and that will be the last day that the library was open (determined by the holiday calendar) because there is no real way to know what day the books were dropped into the box during the 4 closed days.

If you need to set a different checkin date, you can use the SpecifyReturnDate system preference. This will allow you to set an arbitrary date and any overdue fines will be recalculated accordingly.

Holds to pull and holds queue

Question: What is the difference between the Holds queue and Holds to pull reports?

Answer: The holds to pull report gives a simple list of what holds need to be filled with available items. It shows the 『live』 data of your database, so new holds will turn up there immediately. It shows information about each hold including all libraries where items of the requested title are available.

The holds queue report is divided by libraries and will list the hold only for one library where it is available. For libraries with lots of holds and multiple branches this will prevent multiple libraries pulling the item off the shelf at the same time.

The holds queue report is generated by the build_holds_queue.pl cron job. By default it runs hourly, but it might be changed to run at any other interval. There are various configuration options to determine the library to provide the item. For example:

Printing overdue notices

:可以列印逾期通知而不發送電子郵件給讀者嗎?

Answer: Yes. By default Koha will email all overdue notices to patrons without email address to the library.

Additionally the overdue notice cron job has a setting to generate the overdue notices as HTML for printing. An example of this usage would be:

::

overdue_notices.pl -t -html /tmp/noticedir -itemscontent issuedate,date_due,title,barcode,author

在此例中,我們在通知內祗使用館藏的特定欄位,因此指定 itemscontent 欄位於排程款目內;這個不是必備的功能。

The command line needs to specify a web-accessible directory where the print notices will go – they get a filename like notices-2018-11-24.html (or holdnotices-2018-11-24.html). The overdue notice itself can be formatted to fit a Z-mailer. Within the notice file, the text is spaced down or over to where it will print properly on the form. The script has code that wraps around the notice file to tell the HTML to obey the formatting, and to do a page break between notices. The system preference PrintNoticesMaxLines can be used to specify the page length for libraries that allow a lot of checkouts which can lead to some notices running onto multiple pages. That system preference says to truncate the print notice at that page length and put in a message about go check your OPAC account for the full list.

The cron entry is gather_print_notices.pl /tmp/noticedir

Unable to renew items

:我們想為讀者續借。其中一個館藏被別人預約無法續借,另兩個館藏沒人預約卻不能續借。我想啟用凌駕續借限制功能,卻得到 「續借失敗」 訊息。怎麼辦?

Answer: At the very least you will need to set an absolute default circulation rule. This rule should be as standard rule for all libraries, 『All』 itemtype』, and 『All』 patron category. That will catch anyone who doesn’t match a specific rule. Patrons who do not match a specific rule will get blocked from placing holds or renewing items, since there was no baseline number of holds or renewals to utilize.

Unable to place holds

:為什麼把所有的偏好都開啟仍不能借出。

Answer: You probably need to set a default circulation rule in your Circulation and fines rules. At the very least you will need to set a default circulation rule. his rule should be as standard rule for all libraries, 『All』 itemtype』, and 『All』 patron category. That will catch all instances that do not match a specific rule.

The ability to place holds also depends on the 『On shelf holds allowed』 setting in the used circulation rule. Depending on the setting, it might not be possible to place a hold, unless all or at least one item of the record is checked out.

Keyboard shortcuts

Question: Do I have to use my mouse to access the checkout, checkin, renewal and catalog tabs at the top of the circulation pages?

:可以使用以下的鍵盤熱鍵在螢幕上方的搜尋盒分頁間移動 (若定位鍵可用):

  • jump to the catalog search with Alt+q

  • jump to the checkout with Alt+u

    • 麥金塔電腦不能使用此功能

  • jump to the renewal tab with Alt+w

  • jump to the checkin with Alt+r

    說明

    Mac users use the OPTION button in place of Alt

SMS notices/messages

:讓 Koha 以 SMS 方式送出通知,怎麼做?

:首先選定Koha使用的SMS服務商。有個清單在此:http://search.cpan.org/search?query=sms%3A%3Asend&mode=all 並非所有的SMS服務商提供圖書館所需的Perl驅動程式,應再次確認清單的正確性。不行的話,換服務商。美國常用到的服務商(提供Perl驅動程式)如下:

Alternatively you can configure Koha to send SMS via Email. In order to use this feature you need to set the SMSSendDriver system preference to 『Email』 and confiugre the email gateways for the different SMS cellular providers of your patrons.

In any case you might want to check if sending SMS to your patrons is legal in your location.

:印度如何?

Answer: India does not yet have too many options here. This is partly due to the Telecom regulatory authority’s (TRAI) stipulations about transactional SMSes and limits on the number of SMSes that may be sent/received per users per day. India specific drivers include:

Email notices/messages

Question: How do I prevent my libraries notices ending up marked as spam?

Answer: This is a complicated topic, but thankfully Koha gives you a good degree of control via various system preferences.

For every email sent out from Koha there are three important addresses for the system to get correct, From, Reply-to and Sender. These are configurable at both the system and library level and should fallback in a suitable manor if any of them are not defined.

  • KohaAdminEmailAddress - This will act as the From address and should be an address in the same domain as the koha server [for example noreply@koha-hosting.org]

  • ReplytoDefault - This will act as the Reply-to address and can be in any domain [for example librarian@mylibrary.com] and this is the address which will be used if/when a patron hits 『Reply』 in their email client. Note: This will fall back to KohaAdminEmailAddress when it is not set.

  • ReturnpathDefault - This will act as the Sender address and also needs to be within the koha/email servers domain [for example postmaster@koha-hosting.org] and this is the address which will be used to report if an email bounces for any reason.

There are parallels to all the above preferences at the per branch level which fall back in the same order as mentioned aboved before falling back to the system level preferences above when required.

If you have the above configured correctly and your emails are still being treated as spam then you likely need to contact your email service provider/dns provider and look into MX, SPF and DKIM records.

編目

Authorities

Question: Why can’t I edit 1xx, 6xx, or 7xx fields in my catalog record?

答: 這些欄位是權威控制用,您可能把 BiblioAddsAuthorities 偏好設為 「不允許」。設為 「不允許」 時,這些欄位就被鎖住,指定搜尋現有的權威紀錄使用。必須把 BiblioAddsAuthorities 偏好設為 『允許』 就能編輯這些欄位。

說明

被此偏好影響的欄位將顯示一個鎖符號

image1115

Question: Can I use Koha without creating authority records?

Answer: If you don’t want to create authorities for your reacords at all, you can remove the authority link by blanking the Thesaurus setting for the fields in your MARC bibliographic frameworks. See also: Edit framework subfields

Koha to MARC mapping

Question: What’s the relationship between 『Koha to MARC mapping』 and 『MARC bibliographic frameworks』?

Answer: Mappings can be defined through 『MARC bibliographic frameworks』 OR 『Koha to MARC mapping』. 『Koha to MARC mapping』 is just a shortcut to speed up linkage. If you change a mapping in one of these modules, the mapping will change in the other as well. In other words, the two modules 『overwrite』 each other in order to prevent conflicts from existing in Koha.

Number of items per bibliographic record

:每筆書目紀錄的館藏數是否有上限?

Answer: There is no limit to the number of items you can attach to a bibliographic record. For records with a big number of items exporting the MARC record as ISO 2709 might be problematic as this format has a size limit. Item numbers somewhere between 600 and 1000 items on a 『normal』 bibliographic record should be ok.

分析

Question: I am using the EasyAnalyticalRecords feature, but my links in the OPAC and Staff client to 『Show analytics』 are not working.

:使用 EasyAnalyticalRecords 功能前,先設定 UseControlNumber 偏好為 「不使用」,就可避免破碎的連結。

採訪

Planning categories

:規畫範疇是什麼?

:事先規畫預算時,會畫出一個使用的計算,事情就是這麼來的。

假設計畫在一月使用 $1000、二月使用 $1000、三月使用 $3000 等。就可依月份規畫它。

就有一個像這樣的清單:

  • 小於 1 個月

  • 小於 6 個月

  • 小於 1 年

  • 小於 3 年

  • 小於 10 年

  • 大於 10 年

The list is meant to represent when the books acquired were published. Then you plan for it, saying: we want to spend at least 40% of our budgets on books published less than a year ago, 10% on books more than 10 years old, etc.

Upon acquiring new material, you’ll be able to select, for a given item, a value from this list in a drop down. Then, after the material has been acquired, at the end of the year, you’ll be able to compare the goals set with what’s been achieved.

期刊

Advanced patterns

:在進階期刊模式介面裡 『內部計數器』 是什麼?

:我想還是以範例來說明較清楚:

月刊的範例:

  • 第一期的出版年:2010 年 4 月

  • 編碼:{X}號,{Y}年

  • 第一期:4 號,2010 年

對 Y 年而言:您需要在 2011 年元月變更它

所以,Y 的進階模式將是:

  • 增加:1

  • Every : 12

  • When more than: 9999999

  • Inner counter: 3

  • Set back to: 0

  • Begins with: 2010

Year is going to change after 12 received issues from April 2010, that is in April 2011 if you don’t set inner counter. Set inner counter to 3 will say to Koha: change year after 12-3 = 9 received issues.

內部計數器告訴 Koha 把第一期的出版月份納入考量,即使沒有簽收亦然。若第一期從一月開始可以設定為 0 或不設定。

報表

SQL help

Question: I don’t know SQL, but I want to write a report that does X. Can you tell me how?

Answer: The Koha reports library on the Koha wiki is a good starting point and contains a lot of SQL reports shared by other libraries that can be reused and adapted.

Koha’s database schema is also publicly documented and contains helpful notes on how the columns in the various tables are used.

If you get stuck people on the community mailing lists will often be willing to help you.

Codes stored in the database

Statistics table

Question: What are the possible codes for the type field in the statistics table?

答案:

  • localuse

    • 若館藏已被統計讀者 (類型 = 『X』) 借出,登記為還回

  • 還入

  • 續借

  • 核銷

  • 付款

  • CreditXXX

    • 以 XXX 代表不同類型的罰款額度,所以詢問時將包括像這樣的句子 「type LIKE 『Credit%』」

Reserves table

詢問:在 reserves 與 old_reserves 表單裡可能的代碼為何?

答案

  • NULL:表示讀者要求第 1 個可用的館藏,我們沒有選擇該館藏

  • T = Transit: the hold is linked to an item but is in transit to the pickup library

  • W = Waiting: the hold is linked to an item, is at the pickup library, and is waiting on the hold shelf

  • F = 完成:完成保留並做好

Reports dictionary table

詢問:在 reports_dictionary 表單裡可能的區域代碼為何?

答案

  • 1 = 流通

  • 2 = 目錄

  • 3 = 讀者

  • 4 = 採訪

  • 5 = 帳號

Messages table

詢問:在訊息表單的 message_type 欄位裡可能的代碼為何?

答案

  • L = 圖書館員

  • B = 供讀者之用

Serial table

詢問:在期刊表單的狀態欄位裡可能的代碼為何?

答案

  • 1 = 預期

  • 2 = 到館

  • 3 = 遲到

  • 4 = 遺失

  • 5 = 不可得

  • 6 = 刪除

  • 7 = 催缺

  • 8 = 停訂

  • 41 = 遺失 (未簽收)

  • 42 = 遺失 (售完)

  • 43 = 遺失 (毀損)

  • 44 = 遺失 (不見)

Borrowers table

Question: What are the possible codes for the privacy field in the borrowers and deleted_borrowers tables?

答案

  • 0 = 永遠

  • 1 = 預設

  • 2 = 永不

Patron categories table

Question: What are the possible codes for the category types?

答案

  • A = Adult

  • C = Child

  • I = Organization

  • P = Professional

  • S = Staff

  • X = Statistical

Messaging preferences

: borrower_message_preferences 表單的 message_attribute_id 欄位裡有那些代碼?

答案

  • 2 = 進階通知

  • 6 = 借出館藏

  • 4 = 預約到館

  • 1 = 館藏到期

  • 5 = 館藏還入

Runtime parameters

:可以在執行前篩選客製化的 SQL 報表嗎?

Answer: If you want to make your reports easy to reuse with different filters and date ranges, you can add runtime parameters to your query. Runtime parameters basically make a filter appear before the report is run.

There is a specific syntax that Koha will understand as 『ask for values when running the report』. The syntax is <<Question to ask[|type]>>.

  • << 與 >> 祗是區隔符號。必須鍵入 << 於參數前並鍵入 >> 於結尾處

  • The 『Question to ask』 will be displayed as a label before the form field.

  • The type can be omitted if you want a free text input field. If it contains an authorized value category, 『branches』 (libraries), 『itemtype』 (itemtypes), 『categorycode』 (patron categories), or 『biblio_framework』 (MARC bibliographic frameworks), a pull down will be displayed with the options from your configuration instead of a free text field.

  • When using 『date』 as type, the date picker will be displayed to help with entering dates. The date will be automatically changed to the ISO date needed for the SQL query, while you can enter it according to your dateformat system preference setting.

  • Note that you can have more than one parameter in one SQL query. If you need the same value multiple times in your SQL query, make sure you use the same label. This will make the form field only appear once.

  • Note that entering nothing at run time won’t probably work as you expect. It will be considered as 「value empty」 not as 「ignore this parameter」. For example entering nothing for : 「title=<<Enter title>>」 will display results with title=』』 (no title). If you want to have to have something not mandatory, use 「title like <<Enter title>>」 and enter a % at run time instead of nothing

例如:

  • SELECT surname,firstname FROM borrowers WHERE branchcode=<<Enter patrons library|branches>> AND surname like <<Enter filter for patron surname (% if none)>>

  • SELECT * FROM items WHERE homebranch = <<Pick your branch|branches>> and barcode like <<Partial barcode value here, use % to truncate>>

  • SELECT title, author FROM biblio WHERE frameworkcode=<<Enter the frameworkcode|biblio_framework>>

    image1116

    說明

    You have to use 『like』 in your SQL query and put 「%」 in a text box to 『leave it blank』. Otherwise, it literally looks for 「」 (empty string) as the value for the field.

搜尋

Wildcard searching

:使用 『*』 (星號) 與使用 『%』 (百分號) 的鍵詞搜尋有何不同?搜尋目錄時,兩者送回不同的結果。為什麼?

:可用四個萬用字元 (*、?、%、.) 代表英文字裡的一個或多個字母。Koha 祗使用星號 (『*』) 與百分號 (『%』) 兩個萬用字元。然而,這兩個字元在搜尋時作用不同。

星號 『*』 取代在 『*』 之後的字元。搜尋時祗要前幾個字元相同,星號就可取代無限制的字元。例如,搜尋作者,Smi*,將搜尋 Smith、Smithers、Smithfield、Smiley 等,在資料庫裡的作者。

百分號 『%』 將輸入的鍵詞視為 「是這樣」。所以搜尋 Smi% 會搜尋出像 Smi 的鍵詞。此結果與搜尋清單大為不同。例如,搜尋 Smi% 將送回資料庫裡包括 Smothers、Smith、Smelley、Smithfield 與其他鍵詞。

The bottom line in searching with wildcards: 『*』 is more exact while 『%』 searches for similar terms.

Title searching

:為什麼我的 Zebra 題名搜尋 『Help』,在第一頁的搜尋結果,找不到 『The help』 呢?

Answer: In general, the more terms you enter, the better your results will be. Koha doesn’t use stop words, so searching for 「the」 and 「an」 will work just fine. So 「the help」 shoudl bring better results than just a title search for help. Also using 「Title, phrase」 would further improve the results as it means that these terms have to appear in this sequence and with no other terms in between.

Some system preferences are known to affect relevancy ranking negatively. These are QueryAutoTruncate and UseICU. With the latter also requiring the server setup to actually use ICU for indexing.

Note: If multiple results have the same relevancy score, they will be sorted by biblionumber as second criteria.

Reset the Zebra index

執行以下的指令以重設 Zebra 的權威與書目索引。

$ zebraidx -c /etc/koha/zebradb/zebra-authorities-dom.cfg -g iso2709 -d authorities init
$ zebraidx -c /etc/koha/zebradb/zebra-biblios.cfg -g iso2709 -d biblios init

執行套件安裝時,需執行下列指令以重設 Zebra 權威與書目索引:

$ sudo zebraidx -c /etc/koha/sites/YOURLIBRARY/zebra-authorities-dom.cfg  -g iso2709 -d authorities init
$ sudo zebraidx -c /etc/koha/sites/YOURLIBRARY/zebra-biblios.cfg  -g iso2709 -d biblios init

以安裝 Koha 時的名稱取代 YOURLIBRARY。

Enhanced content

Amazon

All Amazon content

:我打開 Amazon 所有的偏好,且鍵入我的密碼,但沒有任何內容顯示在系統內,為什麼?

:Amazon 的 API 檢查所有詢問的伺服器時間,若沒有適當的設定伺服器時間,不會回應詢問。祗要妥當地設定系統時間,就可解決此問題。改變後,Amazon 內容應會立即出現。

Debian 的指令是 date -s 「2010-06-30 17:21」 (就是您時區的日期與時間)。

Amazon also requires an ISBN for displaying book covers - make sure that you have the correct ISBN for your title. If you are having trouble with a book that seems like it should have a cover but doesn’t turn one up, give it a try with the 10 digit ISBN in the first 020a. If you have a 10 digit and it’s not turning up, try with the 13 digit ISBN in the first 020a.

Server administration

Making Z39.50 target public

Question: How can I configure Zebra to make my database searchable via Z39.50?

:編輯 KOHA_CONF 檔案。其 publicserver 列如下:

<!– <listen id=」publicserver」 >tcp:@:9999</listen> –>

改為:

<listen id=」publicserver」 >tcp:@:9999</listen>

然後重新啟動 zebasrv 並連結至指定的埠 (9999)。

Shelving location authorized values

:編輯館藏後,新增的書架位置未顯示於我指定的預設館藏。

Answer: One possible reason is that you created the location in the LOC authorized value category with the code 『』 or 0 (zero). This will be treated as 『no location』 and not display correctly.

Why do I need authorized values?

詢問:為什麼要在 MARC 欄位中設定容許值?

Answer: Authorized values create a 『controlled vocabulary』 for your staff. As an example, let us assume that your Koha installation is used by several libraries, and you use MARC 21. You might want to restrict the 850a MARC subfield to the institution codes for just those libraries. In that case, you could define an authorized values category (perhaps called 「INST」) and enter the institution codes as the authorized values for that category.

說明

Koha 自動設定館藏類型與分館代碼的容許值範疇,且在設定 MARC 欄位結構時把這些容許值連結至 MARC 分欄。

如何設定活動表單?

:有沒有定期的工作排程可以從表單裡剔除舊的活動?我氜不想每晚備份無用的活動。

Answer: You can regularly run the cleanup database cron job.

或在執行備份指令 (mysqldump) 前,先切截活動表單:

mysql -u<kohauser -p<password <koha-db-name -e 'TRUNCATE TABLE sessions'

硬體

Barcode scanners

:那種條碼掃瞄器適用於 Koha?

Answer: The simple rule of thumb is: does it act like a keyboard device? If so, it will work. (i.e. can you take the scanner, scan a barcode and have it show up in a text editor.)

檢查的重點是,它和您的 PC 可以輕鬆地連結 (經由 USB 或 「鍵盤機制」 就是與鍵盤連在一起,舊型電腦用這種方法),且可掃瞄您使用的條碼類型。

測試 『使用中』 的條碼不失為好主意,可以讀出資料就可以。大部份的掃瞄器可以讀取多種格式的條碼 – 有很多,且列出可以讀者的規格。或許需要稍為調整設定,前置或後置字元,或同時送出 『歸位』 字元。

還有一點 - 某些機種可以設為 『總是開啟』 且有支架,有些在把手下有個按鈕,有些在上方有個鈕,有些看起來像隻筆。以館員工作的舒適度為選取的依據,錯誤位置的鈕使用起來很怪。

印表機

Koha 圖書館使用的印表機

General rule of thumb here is that if you can print with the printer from your browser, it will work with Koha.

  • POS-X 收條印表機

  • Star Micronics 列表機 (正確型號不詳) 含通用/文字驅動程式。

  • Star SP2000 (Nelsonville)

  • Star TSP-100 futurePRINT (Geauga)

    • 「我知道收條印表很有問題,所以提供我的經驗。我們試過 Star TSP-100 futurePRINT。該款印表機很容易組態給 Koha 使用。甚至在每個收條加上我們系統的標籤 (一個 .gif 檔案)。也可在收條最後加上若干連絡資訊、開館時間與圖書館網址等與借出有關的資料」。

  • Epson TM 88 IIIP 熱感應收條印表機

  • Epson TM-T88IV

  • Dymolabelwriter 印表機用的 1x1 書標

Braille support

Question: Are there any braille embossers or printers which have inbuilt braille converters and are accessible within the UNIX environment?

Answer: You may want to look into BRLTTY.